# Probability

- Statistics

- ISCED 1 = Lower Secondary Education

- English

## Introduction

Planned activities for understanding the term probability of events with equal and different probability, probability of opposite events, estimation of probability of. comparison of experimental with theoretical probability.

## Learning Outcomes

The learner will learn to:

- Find and sort systematically all possible outcomes (which are mutually exclusive) for single events and two successive events
- Compare experimental with theoretical probabilities
- Recognise that the repetition of experiments can lead to different results
- Increase the number of times the experiment is repeated

## How Does It Work

(10 min) Activity 1 Turn the disc

On the Flippin ‘Discs website (maths.org), the teacher spins the discs green and red and asks pupils to predict the probability. 10 throws are simulated and then the scoreboard is shown. A win is considered achieved when both discs are the same colour. The number of wins divided by the number of throws gives the relative frequency.

(20 min) Activity 2 Who gets there first?

A worksheet, a “Do not be bad man” figure and two playing dice with numbers from 1 to 6 are used.

Participants take turns turning the dice and moving the figure whose ordinal number corresponds to the sum of the dots on top of the dice.

Each figure moves 1 step. Appropriate questions are asked, such as: Which figure do you think will reach the goal first? And why? A discussion develops.

At the end of the activity and the discussion, the table with all possible outcomes when turning the two cubes is attached in the web version

Two Dice Possibility Space (transum.org). In the absence of suitable material (computer, internet, etc.), a table with the results can also be made on paper.

(5 min) “5 tasks in 5 minutes”

Pupils are given a worksheet with 5 tasks to solve (5 min)

## Why Is It A Good Practice?

Through the activities provided for class, pupils will develop their skills for:

- critical thinking
- communication
- collection
- creativity

## Assessment

The activities contain questions that pupils have to answer independently and draw conclusions. Why? How? Why does what is happening happen?

They are expected to discuss and defend their views.

The assessment is based on the worksheet “Five tasks in 5 minutes”

## Inclusion

Inclusive activity: “Pulling candy”

Pupils receive an opaque bag or box of 12 red, 6 blue and 3 green candies and a worksheet in which they should write down what kind of candy they pulled out of the box. According to the data from the table discussion of the questions from the worksheet.